FAQ on ABAP Reporting

 

                                                ABAP Reporting

 

 

Ø                  SAP TERMINOLOGY

 

Master data is a collection of information about a person or an object, e.g. a cost object, vendor, or G/L account. For example, a vendor master record contains not only general information such as the vendor’s name and address, but also specific information, such as payment terms and delivery instructions. Generally for end users, master data is reference data that you will look up and use, but not create or change.

 

Transactional data is data related to a single business event such as a purchase requisition or a request for payment. When you create a requisition, for example, SAP creates an electronic document for that particular transaction. SAP gives the transaction a document number and adds the document to the transaction data that is already in the system. Whenever you complete a transaction in SAP, that is, when you create, change, or print a document in SAP, this document number appears at the bottom of the screen.

 

Workflow

A routing tool in SAP that forwards documents for review or approval. For example, a requisition that needs to be approved is sent to the appropriate approver's inbox. Workflow is also used to route journal vouchers, credit card charges, and other documents in SAP.

 

Cost Object:

A Cost Object collects expenses and revenues for a particular purpose, such as a research project. In SAP there are three types of cost objects: CostCenter, Internal Order, and WBS (Work Breakdown Structure) Element (see below for definition).

 

Cost Center:

General or operating Cost Objects are known in SAP as Cost Centers. Cost Centers are budgeted on the fiscal year.

 

Internal Order:

A non-sponsored Cost Object (for example, funding from the MIT Provost) used to track costs over periods other than fiscal years. Internal Orders are often created to track gifts or endowments at MIT.

 

WBS Element: WBS Elements are funded by outside sponsors and are used to track costs of a particular research project over the entire span of its activity. They may also be created to track other sponsored activities, such as gifts.

 

G/L Account:

G/L accounts are also called Cost Elements in SAP. They are a classification by expense or revenue type. In the CO (Controlling) module of SAP, the term Cost Element is used. In the FI

(Financial) module, the term G/L Account is used. These terms are used interchangeably for reporting, requisitions, and journal vouchers.

 

 

Ø                  Database tables and open SQL

 

Add a single record to a database table

 

insert into <database table> values <work area>

 

Inserting all lines from an internal table into a database table:

 

insert <database table> from table <internal table>

 

Delete all records

 

 Select        * from  zmellemtab. 

    delete zmellemtab.               

  endselect.                        

 

Deleting records using records from an internal table

 

delete employees from table itab.

 

 

Ø                        Q & A

 

BASIS LAYER

 

What  are  the  central  interfaces  of  the  R/3  system ?

-       Presentation  interface

              Database  interface

        Operating  system  interface

 

Which  interface  controls  what  is  shown  on  the  p.c. ?

-              Presentation  interface

 

Which  interface  converts  SQL  requirements  in  the  SAP  development   system  to  those  of  the  database ?

-              Database  interface

 

What  is   SAP  dispatcher ?

-     SAP   dispatcher  is  the  control  agent  which  manages  the

resources   for  the  R/3  applications. 

 

What  are  the  functions  of  dispatcher ?

-     Equal  distribution  of  transaction  load  to  the  work  processes

      Management  of  buffer  areas  in  main  memory

      Integration  of  the  presentation  levels

            Organization  of  communication  activies

 

What  is  a  work  process ?

-     A  work  process  is  where     individual  dialog   steps  are  actually   processed  and  the  work  is  done.  Each  work  process handles   one  type  of  request.

 

Name  various  work  processes  of  R/3  system ?

1)   Dialog  or  Online ( processes  only  one  request  at  a  time )

       2)  Background ( started  at  a  specified  time )

       3)  Update ( primary  or  secondary )

       4)  Enque(  lock  mechanism )

       5)  Spool ( generated  online  or  during  back  ground  processing For  printing )

 

What are the types of Update requests ?

-     An update request can be divided into one primary (V1) and several Secondary update components (V2). Time-critical operations are placed in V1 component and those whose timing are less critical are placed in V2 components. If a V1 update fails, V2 components will not be processed.

 

What  are  the  roll  and  page  areas  ?

-     Roll  and  page  areas  are  SAP  R/3  buffers   used  to  store

user  contexts  ( process  requests ) .  The  SAP  dispatcher  assigns

process  requests  to  work  processes  as  they  are  received.  If

the  work  process  is  unavailable   the  process  requests  are  queued  in  the  roll  and  page  areas.

Paging area holds data from the application programs.

Roll area holds data from previous dialog steps and data that characterizes user.

 

What is a Spool request ?

-     Spool requests are generated during dialog or background processing and placed in the spool database with information about the printer and print format. The actual data is placed in the Tem Se (Temporary Sequential objects).

 

What are the different database integrities ?

-          Semantic integrity

-     Relational integrity

-     Primary key integrity

-     Value set integrity

-     Foreign key integrity and

-     Operational integrity.

 

 

DATA DICTIONARY .

 

Type of a table or structure                                                

                                                                           

    The table type determines how the logical table description defined in 

    the ABAP/4 Dictionary is reproduced on the database.                    

                                                                           

    There are the following table types:                                   

    o  transparent table                                                   

    o  structure                                                           

    o  append structure                                                    

                                                                           

    For internal purposes, such as storing control data or update texts,   

    there are in addition the following table types:                       

    o  pooled table                                                        

    o  cluster table                                                        

    o  generated view structure                                            

                                                                           

 Transparent table                                                            

                                                                               

     There is a physical table on the database for each transparent table. The

     names of the physical tables and the logical table definition in the     

     ABAP/4 Dictionary correspond.                                            

                                                                              

     All business data and application data are stored in transparent tables. 

                                                                               

 Structure                                                                      

                                                                                

     No data records exist in the database for a structure. Structures are      

     used for the interface definition between programs or between screens and  

     programs.                                                                  

 &nb


Comments (7)

Suresh
Said this on 11-16-2007 At 10:17 am
Very Useful
KRISHNAREDDY
Said this on 12-12-2007 At 04:34 pm
good
ch.subbareddy
Said this on 2-13-2008 At 01:50 pm
very useful to usefull for all abapers
Surbhi
Said this on 2-13-2008 At 06:04 pm
consience information
vistna
Said this on 2-14-2008 At 01:42 pm
good
v dhanasekhar
Said this on 4-4-2008 At 12:57 am
good faqs in abap, but try to be in update.
jyoti
Said this on 4-4-2008 At 11:04 am
it a knowledge yielding good article
thnx for these gr8 articles
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