SAP Transaction- Interview questions

  1. What is a transaction?

-          A transaction is dialog program that change data objects in a consistent way. 

  1. What are the requirements a dialog program must fulfill?

A dialog program must fulfill the following requirements

-          A user friendly user interface.

-          Format and consistency checks for the data entered by the user.

-          Easy correction of input errors.

-          Access to data by storing it in the data bases. 

       3. What are the basic components of dialog program?

-          Screens (Dynpros)

-          Each dialog in an SAP system is controlled by dynpros. A dynpros consists of a screen

And its flow logic and controls exactly one dialog step.

-          ABAP/4 module Pool.

     Each dynpro refers to exactly one ABAP/4 dialog program .Such a dialog program is also       called a module pool ,since it consists of interactive modules. 

4.What is PBO and PAI events?

PBO- Process Before Output-It determines the flow logic before displaying the screen.

PAI-Process After Input-It determines the flow logic after the display of the screen and after receiving inputs from the User. 

5. What is dynpro? What are its components ?

-          A dynpro (Dynamic Program) consists of a screen and its flow logic and controls exactly one dialog steps.

-          The different components of the dynpro are :

Flow Logic: calls of the ABAP/4 modules for a screen .

Screen layout: Positions of the text, fields, pushbuttons and so on for a screen

Screen Attributes: Number of the screen, number of the subsequent screen, and others

Fields attributes: Definition of the attributes of the individual fields on a screen. 

6. What is a ABAP/4 module pool?

-Each dynpro refers to exactly one ABAP/4 dialog program. Such a dialog program is also called

a module pool ,since it consists on interactive modules. 

7.Can we use WRITE statements in screen fields? If not how is data transferred from field data to screen fields?

-We cannot write field data to the screen using the WRITE statement. The system instead transfers data by comparing screen fields names with ABAP/4  variable names. If both names are the same, it

transfers screen fields values to ABAP/4 programs fields and Vice Versa. This happens immediately after displaying the screen. 

8.Can we use flow logic control key words in ABAP/4 and vice-versa?

-          The flow control of a dynpro consists of a few statements that syntactically resemble ABAP/4  statements .However ,we cannot use flow control keywords in ABAP/4 and vice-versa. 

9.What is GUI status? How to create /Edit GUI status?

-A GUI status is a subset of the interface elements used for a certain screen. The status comprises

those elements that are currently needed by the transaction .The GUI status for a transaction may be composed of the following elements:

-Title bar.

-Menu bar.

-Application tool bar

-Push buttons. 

To create and edit GUI status and GUI title, we use the Menu Painter. 

10. How does the interaction between  the Dynpro and the ABAP/4 Modules takes place?

-A transaction is a collection of screens and ABAP/4 routines, controlled and executed by a Dialog processor. The Dialog processor processes screen after the screen, thereby triggering the appropriate

ABAP/4 processing of each screen .For each screen, The system executes the flow logic that contains the corresponding ABAP/4 processing. The controls passes from screen flow logic to ABAP/4 code and back. 

11. How does the Dialog handle user requests?

-          when an action is performed ,the system triggers the PROCESS AFTER INPUT (PAI) event. The data passed includes field screen data ,data entered by the user and a function code. A  function code is a technical name that has been allocated in a screen Painter or Menu Painter to a menu entry, a push button, the ENTER key or a function Key of a screen. An internal work field(ok-code)in the PAI module evaluates the function code, and the appropriate action is taken. 

  1. What is to be defined for a push button fields in the screen attributes?

-          A function code has to be defined in the screen attributes for the push buttons in a screen. 

  1. How are the function code handles in Flow Logic?

           - When the User selects a function in a transaction , the system copies the function code into a           specially   designated work field called OK_CODE. This field is Global in ABAP/4 Module Pool. The OK_CODE can then be evaluated in the corresponding PAI module. The function code is always passed in Exactly the same way , regardless of Whether it comes from a screen’s pushbutton, a menu option ,function key or other GUI element. 

14.What controls the screen flow?

-          The SET SCREEN and LEAVE SCREEN statements controls screen flow. 

  1. The Function code currently active is ascertained by what Variable?

-          The function code currently active in  a Program can be ascertained from the SY-UCOMM  Variable. 

  1. The function code currently  active is ascertained by what variable ?

-          By SY-UCOMM Variable. 

  1. What are the “field” and “chain” Statements?

-          The FIELD and CHAIN flow logic statements let you Program Your own checks.FIELD and CHAIN tell the system Which fields you are checking and Whether the System should Perform Checks in the flow logic or call an ABAP/4 Module.

  1. What is an “on input filed” statements?

-          ON INPUT

The ABAP/4 module is called only if a field contains the Value other than the initial Value. This initial Value is determined by the field’s   Data Type: blanks for character Fields

,Zeroes for numeric. If the  user changes the Fields Value back to its initial value, ON INPUT does not trigger a call.

  1. What is an “on request Field” statement?

-          ON REQUEST

  The ABAP/4 Module is called only if the user has entered the value in the field value since the last screen display .The Value counts as changed Even if the User simply types in the value that was already there .In general ,the ON REQUEST condition is triggered through any

Form of” MANUAL INPUT’. 

  1. What is an on”*-input filed” statement?

ON *-INPUT

-          The ABAP/4 module is called if the user has entered the “*” in the first  character of the field, and the field has the attribute  *-entry in the screen Painter. You can use this option in Exceptional cases where you want to check only fields with certain Kinds of Input. 

  1. What are conditional chain statement?

ON CHAIN-INPUT similar to ON INPUT.

The ABAP/4 module is called if any one of the fields in the chain contains a value other than its initial value(blank or nulls).

ON CHAIN-REQUEST

This condition functions just like ON REQUEST, but the ABAP/4 module is called if any one of the fields in the chain changes value.

  1. What is “at exit-command:?

The flowlogic Keyword at EXIT-COMMAND is a special addition to the MODULE statement in the Flow Logic .AT EXIT-COMMAND lets you call a module before the system executes the automatic fields checks.

  1. Which Function type has to be used for using “at exit-command” ?

-          To Use AT EXIT – COMMAND ,We must assign a function Type “E” to the relevant function in the MENU Painter OR Screen Painter . 

  1. What are the different message types available in the ABAP/4 ?

-          There are 5 types of message types available.

-          E: ERROR

-          W-WARNING

-          I –INFORMATION

-          A-ABNORMAL TERMINATION.

-          S-SUCCESS

  1. Of the two “ next screen “ attributes the attributes that has more priority is -------------------.

Dynamic. 

  1. Navigation to a subsequent screen can be specified statically/dynamically. (TRUE/FALSE).

                  TRUE. 

  1. Dynamic screen sequence  for a  screen can be set using ------------- and ----------------- commands

     Set Screen, Call screen.

27. The commands through Which an ABAP/4 Module can “branch to “ or “call” the next screen are

 

   1.------------,2--------------,3---------------,4------------.

 

-          Set screen<scr no>,Call screen<scr no> ,Leave screen, Leave to screen <scr no>.

       28. What is difference between SET SCREEN and CALL SCREEN ?

  

-          With SET SCREEN the current screen simply specifies the next screen in the chain , control branches to this next screen  as soon as the current screen has been processed .Return from next screen to current screen is not automatic .It does not interrupt  processing of the current screen. If we want to branch  to the next  screen without finishing  the current one ,use LEAVE SCREEN.

 

-          With CALL SCREEN , the current (calling) chain is suspended , and a next screen (screen chain) is called .The called can then return to the suspended chain with the statement LEAVE SCREEN TO SCREEN 0 .Sometime we might want  to let an user call a pop up screen from the main application screen to let him enter secondary information. After they have completed their entries, the users should be able to close the popup and return directly to the place where they left off in the main screen. Here comes CALL SCREEN into picture .This statement lets us insert such a sequence into the current one.

 29. Can we specify the next screen number with a variable (*Yes/No)?

   

-          Yes

 

30.    The field SY-DYNR refers to--------------

 

Number of the current screen.

 

31.    What is dialog Module?

-       A dialog Module is a callable sequence of screens that does not belong to a particular transaction. Dialog modules have their module pools , and can be called by any transaction.

 

32.    The Syntex used to call a screen as dialog box (pop up)is---------

 

 CALL SCREEN <screen number.>

STARTING AT <start column><start line>

ENDING AT <end column> <end line>

 

33.    What is “call mode”?

-          In the ABAP/4  WORLD each stackable sequence of screens is a “call mode”, This is IMP because of the way u return from the given  sequence .To terminate a call mode and return to a suspended chain set the “next screen” to 0 and leave to it:

      LEAVE TO SCREEN 0 or (SET SCREEN 0 and LEAVE SCREEN) .When u return to     the suspended chain execution resumes with the statement  directly following the original CALL SCREEN statement.The original sequence of screens in a transaction (that is , without having stacked any additional call modes),you returned from the transaction altogether.

 

 

34.    The max number of  calling modes stacked at one time is?

-          NINE

 

35.    What is LUW  or Data base Transaction ?

 

-          A “LUW”(logical unit of work) is the span of time during which any database updates must be performed in an “all or nothing” manner .Either they are all performed (committed),or they are all thrown  away (rolled back).In the ABAP/4 world , LUWs and

-          Transactions can have several meanings:

 

LUW (or “database LUW” or “database transaction”)

 

This is the set of updates terminated by a database commit. A  LUW lasts, at most, from one screen change to the next (because the SAP system triggers database commits automatically at every screen change).

 

36.    What is SAP LUW or Update Transaction?

Update transaction (or “SAP LUW”)

This is a set of updates terminated by an ABAP/4 commit.  A SAP LUW may last much longer than a database LUW, since most update processing extends over multiple transaction screens.  The programmer terminates an update transaction by issuing a COMMIT WORK statement.

 

37.    What happens if only one of the commands SET SCREEN and LEAVE SCREEN is used without using the other?

If we use SET SCREEN without LEAVE SCREEN, the program finishes processing for the current screen before branching to <scr no>.  If we use LEAVE SCREEN without a SET SCREEN before it, the current screen process will be terminated and branch directly to the screen specified as the default next-screen in the screen attributes.

 

38.    What is the significance of the screen number ‘0’?

In “calling mode”, the special screen number 0 (LEAVE TO SCREEN 0) causes the system to jump back to the previous call level.  That is, if you have called a screen sequence with CALL SCREEN leaving to screen 0 terminates the sequence and returns to the calling screen.  If you have not called a screen sequence, LEAVE TO SCREEN 0 terminates the transaction.

 

39.    What does the ‘SUPPRESS DIALOG’ do?

Suppressing of entire screens is possible with this command.  This command allows us to perform screen processing “in the background”.  Suppressing screens is useful when we are branching to list-mode from a transaction dialog step.

 

40.    What is the significance of the memory table ‘SCREEN’?

At runtime, attributes for each screen field are stored in the memory table called ‘SCREEN’.  We need not declare this table in our program.  The system maintains the table for us internally and updates it with every screen change.

 

41.    What are the fields in the memory table ‘SCREEN’?

Name                     Length             Description

 

NAME                     30                     Name of the screen field

GROUP1                 3                      Field belongs to field group 1

GROUP2                 3                      Field belongs to field group 2

GROUP3                 3                      Field belongs to field group 3

GROUP4                 3                      Field belongs to field group4

ACTIVE                  1                      Field is visible and ready for input.

REQUIRED              1                      Field input is mandatory.

INPUT                    1                      Field is ready for input.

OUTPUT                 1                      Field is display only.

INTENSIFIED          1                      Field is highlighted

INVISIBLE              1                      Field is suppressed.

LENGTH                 1                      Field output length is reduced.

DISPLAY_3D          1                      Field is displayed with 3D frames.

VALUE_HELP         1                      Field is displayed with value help.

 

42.    Why grouping of fields is required? What is the max no of modification groups for each field?

If the same attribute need to be changed for several fields at the same time these fields can be grouped together.  We can specify up to four modification groups for each field.

 

43.    What are the attributes of a field that can be activated or deactivated during runtime?

Input, Output, Mandatory, Active, Highlighted, Invisible.

 

44.    What is a screen group? How it is useful?

Screen group is a field in the Screen Attributes of a screen.  Here we can define a string of up to four characters which is available at the screen runtime in the SY-DNGR field.  Rather than maintaining field selection separately for each screen of a program, we can combine logically associated screens together in a screen group.

 

45.    What is a Subscreen? How can we use a Subscreen?

A subscreen is an independent screen that is displayed in an area of another (“main”) screen.  To use a subscreen we must call it in the flow logic (both PBO and PAI) of the main screen.  The CALL SUBSCREEN statement tells the system to execute the PBO and PAI events for the subscreen as part of the PBO or PAI events of the main screen.  The flow logic of your main program should look as follows:

PROCESS BEFORE OUTPUT.

CALL SUBSCREEN <area> INCLUDING ‘<program>’ ’<screen>’.

PROCESS AFTER INPUT.

CALL SUBSCREEN <area>.

Area is the name of the subscreen area you defined in your main screen.  This name can have up to ten characters.  Program is the name of the program to which the subscreen belongs and screen is the subscreen’s number.


Comments (1)

Dinesh_Born2succeed
Said this on 6-3-2011 At 04:00 pm

itz really usefull to refresh...

Post a Comment
* Your Name:
* Your Email:
(not publicly displayed)
Reply Notification:
Approval Notification:
Website:
* Security Image:
Security Image Generate new
Copy the numbers and letters from the security image:
* Message:

Email to Friend

Fill in the form below to send this article to a friend:

Email to Friend
* Your Name:
* Your Email:
* Friend's Name:
* Friend's Email:
* Security Image:
Security Image Generate new
Copy the numbers and letters from the security image
* Message: